The land of Israel was divided by the population of the tribe in order by lot.
As Israel was preparing to enter the land of Canaan, GOD gave Moses instructions for how to distribute each person's inheritance:
52 Then the Lord spoke to Moses, saying, 53 “To these the land shall be divided as an inheritance based on the number of names. 54 To a large tribe you shall give a larger inheritance, and to a small tribe you shall give a smaller inheritance. Each shall be given its inheritance based on its census. 55 But the land shall be divided by lot; they shall inherit according to the names of the tribes of their fathers. 56 By allotment their inheritance shall be divided between the larger and the smaller.”
(Numbers 26:52-56 OSB)