God spoke directly to the Israelites and gave them the Ten Commandments.
When GOD came down upon Mount Sinai, He spoke directly to the whole nation of people, giving them the Ten Commandments:
1 Now the Lord spoke all these words, saying:
2 “I am the Lord your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage. 3 You shall have no other gods before Me.
4 “You shall not make for yourself an idol or a likeness of anything in heaven above, or in the earth beneath, or in the waters under the earth. 5 You shall not bow down to them or serve them, for I, the Lord your God, am a jealous God, recompensing the sins of the fathers on the children to the third and fourth generation of those who hate Me; 6 but showing mercy to thousands, to those who love Me and keep My commandments.
7 “You shall not take the name of the Lord your God in vain, for the Lord will not hold him guiltless who takes His name in vain.
8 “Remember the Sabbath Day, to keep it holy. 9 Six days you shall labor and do all your work, 10 but the seventh day is the Sabbath of the Lord your God. In it you shall do no work: neither you, nor your son, your daughter, your male servant, your female servant, your cattle, nor your stranger who sojourns with you. 11 For in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, the sea, and everything in them, and rested on the seventh day. Therefore, the Lord blessed the Sabbath Day and hallowed it.
12 “Honor your father and mother that it may be well with you, and your days may be long upon the good land the Lord your God is giving you.
13 “You shall not murder.
14 “You shall not commit adultery.
15 “You shall not steal.
16 “You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor.
17 “You shall not covet your neighbor's wife or his house, and neither shall you covet his field, nor his male servant, his female servant, his ox, his donkey, any of his cattle, or whatever belongs to your neighbor.”
18 Now all the people witnessed the thunderings, the lightning flashes, the sound of the trumpet, and the mountain smoking; and when the people saw this, they trembled and stood afar off. 19 Then they said to Moses, “You speak with us, and we will hear; but let not God speak with us, lest we die.” 20 And Moses said to the people, “Be of good courage, for God is come to test you, that His fear may be among you so you may not sin.” 21 So the people stood afar off, but Moses drew near the thick darkness where God was.
22 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Thus you shall say to the house of Jacob and report it to the children of Israel: ‘You have seen that I talked with you from heaven. 23 You shall not make for yourselves gods of silver, and gods of gold you shall not make for yourselves. 24 An altar of earth you shall make for Me, and you shall sacrifice on it your whole burnt offerings, your peace offerings, your sheep and your calves. In every place where I record My name I will come to you and bless you. 25 If you make Me an altar of stone, you shall not build it of hewn stone; for if you use your tool on it, you defile it. 26 Nor shall you go up by steps to My altar, that your nakedness may not be exposed on it.’
(Exodus 20:1-26 OSB)
Thus, the foundation of the Law of Moses consisted of these ten commands that GOD spoke by His own voice to the entire nation of Israel. Every person present heard these straight from GOD:
- No other gods before Me
- No idols, image likenesses, worship or service to them
- Not take GOD's name in vain
- Remember the Sabbath
- Honor your father and mother
- No murder
- No adultery
- No stealing
- No false witness (lying)
- No coveting